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Biomap#69

Title: Apoptosis pathways
 
Legend: Resistance to apoptosis is a key event in cancer (including melanoma) survival and resistance to therapy [1-4]. Intrinsic (or mitochondrial) and extrinsic (or death receptor) apoptosis pathways and their interconnections are depicted. CITED MOLECULES: AKT (protein kinase B, PKB), APAF1 (apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1, CED4), Apollon (baculoviral IAP repeat containing 6, BIRC6, Bruce), Apoptosome, BAD (BCL2-antagonist of cell death), BAK (BCL2-antagonist/killer), BAX (BCL2-associated X protein), Bcl-2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2), Bcl-W (BCL2-like 2, BCL2L2), Bcl-XL (BCL2-like 1, BCL2L1), BH3 only protein, BID (BH3 interacting domain [death agonist]), BIK (BCL2-interacting killer), BIM (BCL2-like 11, BCL2L11), BMF (Bcl2 modifying factor), CAD (caspase activated DNase), Calpain, CARD8 (caspase recruitment domain family, member 8), Cathepsin, Ceramide, c-IAP1 (inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1), c-IAP-2, Cryopyrin, Cytochrome-C, DISC (death inducing signalling complex), Effector/executor caspases (caspase-3, caspase-6, caspase-7), Endo-G, ERK (mitogen-activated protein kinase, MAPK), FADD (FAS associated death domain), FAN (neutral SMase activation associated factor), FAS (TNFRSF6, CD95, APO-1), FASL (FAS ligand), FLIP (FLICE inhibitory protein), GADD45 (growth arrest and DNA damage [inducible]), Granzyme-B, HDM2 (MDM2), HRK (Harakiri, DP5), ICAD (inhibitor of CAD), IL-1b (interleukin-1 beta), IL-18 (interleukin-18), ILP2 (BIRC8), Inflammatory caspases (caspase-1, caspase-4, caspase-5, caspase-11, caspase-12), Inflammosome, Initiator caspases (caspase-2, caspase-8 [FLICE], caspase-9, caspase-10), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, MAPK), Lamin, Livin (BIRC7), MADD (MAP-kinase activating death domain), MCL1 (myeloid cell leukemia [sequence] 1), MEKK1 (MAP3K1), MKK7 (MEK7, MAP2K7), MOMP (mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization), NAIP (BIRC1), NFkB (nuclear factor kappa B), NIK (NFkB inducing kinase, MAP3K14), Noxa (PMAIP1), p14 (ARF, CDKN2A locus alternative reading frame), p32 (C1QBP), p53, PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase), Perforin, PIDD (p53 induced [protein with] death domain, LRDD), Puma (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis, BBC3), PYCARD (PYD and CARD domain containing, CARD5), RAIDD (RIP associated protein with death domain; CASP2 and RIPK1 domain containing adaptor with death domain, CRADD), RIP (receptor [TNFR] interacting protein, RIPK1), SMAC (Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase, DIABLO), SMase (sphingomyelynase), Sphingomyelin, Survivin (BIRC5), tBID (truncated BID), TNF (tumor necrosis factor), TNFR (TNF receptor), TRADD (TNFR associated [via] death domain), TRAF2 (TNFR associated factor 2), TRAIL (TNF related apoptosis inducing ligand), TRAILR (TRAIL receptor), XIAP (BIRC4, ILP1). REFERENCES: [1] Letai AG, Nat Rev Cancer 2008, 8:121-32. [2] Fulda S et al, Oncogene 2006, 25:4798-811. [3] Hersey P et al, Adv Exp Med Biol 2008, 615:105-26. [4] Eberle J et al, Drug Resist Updat 2007, 10:218-34. Figure #69
Author: The MMMP Team (updated: August 2008)

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